Why a personal decentralized server is more important than ever before!

Do you want the big tech (and then the big government) always watching your every move?  https://www.redstate.com/setonmotley/2019/06/27/big-government-big-tech-partnering-track-us-everywhere/

Photography of Person Peeking

Start taking control of your personal e-mail, communications and digital assets on your own server that is easy to setup and get security and peace of mind that you are taking control of your own personal data. Even add a social mediahome automation and AI powered assistant all under your own control. Get in touch with info@pexus.com to learn more how our product and services can help you get off the surveillance grid!

Virtual Private Server - PPS-Mem-2GB-1vCPU-20GB-Plan-M

Cheap Cloud

If you are tired of paying too much for brand name cloud hosting check out some alternatives.


DigitalOcean Alternatives

We at Pexus LLC also offer our turnkey Patriot PS – Personal Server VPS solution in the cloud  Check out our solutions here https://hosting.pexus.net and feel free to contact us how we can help you with personal server solutions for taking control of your data in your own home or in the cloud.

5 decentralized apps for your Personal Server


Personal Server

For every interaction you do on your mobile device application or via an internet browser there is a server somewhere on the Internet that you don’t have much control over. For most applications this remote server just provides an always-on computing server to process your data and send results back to your mobile device or your PC. A simple application is a mail server, an essential communication application that most of us use every day. All it does is collect mail messages on your behalf that you then download to your mobile device or PC for replying, forwarding or long term storage.  Most of  the applications that we use follow a similar pattern.  Remote servers are typically used to store and process  your personal application data. When we use them we are giving up our personal data and privacy to a third party. With computing so cheap, why not own this server in the privacy of your own home or in the cloud as a Virtual Private Server at a very nominal monthly subscription? Owning your own personal server provides full control of your data and keeps companies from mining and misusing your personal data.

There are other personal server applications that provide a compelling case to own a personal server,  such as owning your own personal communication system to do end to end encrypted instant messaging, using voice and video chat, managing your smart home devices, joining a federated social media platform to share your tweets and posts without censorship, and many more. In this article we will look at some of these applications that you can setup and break free from the centralized monolithic internet services and still be connected via federated network to everyone using the similar applications with same standards and protocols.

Decentralized computing with Personal Server

Most  commonly used personal server applications are e-mail, messaging, voice/video chats, social media posts, document/media sharing and, more recently controlling your smart home devices.  Electronic mail was one of the first truly decentralized application ever created. Unfortunately, the “free” services pioneered by Hotmail that was replicated by Gmail and others led to the growth of the surprisingly invasive email services that are currently in practice. While these are easy to sign up and use, such services have become a conduit for leaking personal data. Consumers often unknowingly agree to the fine print and are largely unaware of how their personal data that is harvested through these services are used and in some cases to their own disadvantage.

A continuous feed of personal data from these services whether it is e-mail content, social media posts, web site navigation history, telephonic conversations, text messages, smart home device sensor data, power the data algorithms and machine learning artificial intelligence applications that have the potential to impact every aspect of our personal lives. While there is no argument that such services do enhance everyday conveniences, they also come at a cost of personal privacy which indirectly affects the individual in countless ways, whether it is suppression of political thought and expression, loss of leverage to potential online deals, silent digital discrimination that consumers and citizens are unable to comprehend,  surveillance by repressive regimes, or that well known “creepiness” that everyone has experienced as we navigate and use web applications of today.

There has to be a better way while still leveraging all that technology has to offer us.  Lately, there has been a trend increasingly driven by users and organizations who value digital freedom and privacy to build decentralized applications on the web. Imagine a world where personal computing is completely decentralized but always connected and secured by encryption that is owned by each personal decentralized node. A connected decentralized computing network opens up a whole new set of computing applications that will empower the individual, increase resiliency of all connected services and, at the same time improve personal privacy and digital freedom. Decentralized computing can disrupt the current status quo of centralized computing where little control is given to users.


End-to-end encrypted decentralized computing can give rise to a hidden web that can make enforcement of laws to prevent trafficking in illegal content difficult.  However such usage is limited to few bad actors. Governments and law enforcement officials routinely cite security and difficulty in law enforcement as a reason why they would want to put controls on encryption and relax privacy protections. But the majority of users are law abiding citizens that would like to interact and communicate personal data without surveillance.  Businesses can also benefit by releasing themselves from the liability of managing their users’ personal data and let users be responsible for their own data on their own personal servers. Of course, easy secure out of the box configuration and protection software on the personals servers are critical for mass adoption.

Decentralized Applications You Can Use Today!

I would like to list a number of freely available decentralized applications with permissible licenses that you can install on your own low cost ($150-$300) personal server (PS) or that old desktop computer you have not touched in while at home or a virtual private server (VPS) in the cloud for under $10/- a month under your complete control.

Postfix based Email Server


E-mail is one of the most commonly used communication methods used by everyone. Having your own e-mail server requires a domain name. Having an e-mail server that can receive and send your e-mails can protect your data from being scanned by third party service providers. Once the mail server is setup, e-mail can be easily accessed from a smartphone using preinstalled mail client application or a desktop using mail client like Thunderbird, Microsoft Outlook, or Web mail clients such as  Roundcube etc.


Having a mail server also enables you to create unlimited mail boxes for yourself and your family.  E-mail was always designed to be a decentralized application. The application will still work if the server is temporarily down. The retry mechanism is built into the protocol.

Matrix based end to end encrypted secure communication –

Matrix is an open network for secure end-to-end encrypted decentralized communication. A user can use their own home server or join one of the publicly servers. It allows end-to-end encryption for text, voice, and video communication. Installing a matrix home server for personal and family use can provide protection for personal communication. One can communicate to any other user on another matrix server thereby creating a federation. Plugins are also available and being developed to other popular messaging service and telephone networks.


A number of free matrix client software is available on all popular smart phone devices and desktop computers such as Riot.im, Weechat-matrix, nheko, or Quaternion, each of which enables easy connection to any matrix server to facilitate end-to-end (E2E) encrypted  text, voice, and video chats between users on your own home server or any matrix server.


OwnCloud CE for document and media sharing –

OwnCloud is one of the largest open source content collaboration platforms. You can sync files from your desktop similarly to DropBox or Google Drive. When you host your own instance of OwnCloud on your server, you own the content and protect it from being available to a third party service provider who may use the content to serve advertisement and potentially exposing private confidential data.


Sharing and access to files is possible using one of the many clients available for desktop, iOS, or Android devices. Sharing links to your documents can be done publicly or using protected links on which you can set a password and expiry time. This is an indispensable tool when you don’t want to send documents via e-mail and instead send protected links and communicate the password to the user separately or allows you to set an expiry date for the shared links,  so that they will not be accessible after a specified time.

Mastodon powered decentralized social media –  Mastodon Logotype (Simple).svg

Mastodon is a federated social media platform forked from Gnu Social.  It uses the OStatus or Activity Pub open standard protocol that enables one website to send and receive status updates on another server instance. There is an active development community for Mastodon and it has become quite popular with users who want freedom to post and follow whomsoever they wish without corporate or state censorship. It is an alternative to Twitter and Facebook with complete control and ownership of your content. You are free to post and follow any user in the federated network of Mastodon servers from your own instance of the Mastodon server.  You can also join other server instances that tend to specialize on various subjects. Of course each Mastodon instance owner will have their own policies on what they will allow to post on their servers. Controlling your own servers allows you to create your own policies and allow others to join. Users can be part of any Mastodon server in the network and still be able to follow any other users in the federation. This is a true decentralization concept for digital freedom that still allows users to stay connected.

Screenshot of Mastodon on desktop

Access your Mastodon server or any other Mastodon server instance using a host of clients available for desktop, iOS or Android devices. A full list available here – https://github.com/tleb/awesome-mastodon#clients

OpenHab to power a smart home – @openhab

OpenHAB is a vendor and technology agnostic, open source automation software for your home. OpenHAB uses a pluggable architecture that has support for 200 different technologies and systems supporting thousands of devices. You can install an instance of OpenHAB on your personal server and use the OpenHAB client via the web browser or iOS or Android apps to control smart devices in your home. All this without sending your home data to any third-party services in the cloud.

Demo Main Menu

Demo Widget Overview


Challenges and Getting Started

When choosing a personal server to install in your home, look for a small mini PC, ideally a fanless system for quite and long lasting operation. There are various kinds of small mini PC you can buy at Amazon and other places on the internet.  Pexus LLC also offers a few options here.  Look for a minimum of 2GB to 4GB system with at least 40GB hard disk/persistent storage option with an Ethernet port. Monitor/Keyboard/Mouse is not required once you install the basic operating system and have your server connected to your home LAN (Local Area Network). You can do all management using freely available Webmin using a web browser or via SSH/Putty terminal.

If you don’t want to deal with buying hardware and installing it in your own home, you can try a Virtual Private Server (VPS) as your personal server. Prices to host a VPS has come down considerably these days and will continue to drop in future. You can buy a monthly subscription from a host of cloud providers that offers cheap VPS under $10/- month. Linode and Digital Ocean are two cloud provider that offers VPS. A little bit of research on the internet can provide you more options.  I personally use Luna Node which is hosted in Canada. They have been in the business for a number of years and provide great service at very reasonable prices.

You will also need a domain name and DNS management service. A domain name will cost you a $1 a month or so. There are number of Domain Name service providers where you can buy a domain, but you need to see if they charge for managing your domain name. www.dnsexit.com provides free management of your domain so this is good  for personal use. You can manage the domain even if you bought the domain from some other domain name provider. You can create any number of hosts and DNS records such as MX (Mail Handler) and more, which will be required if you host your own mail server and other applications I have mentioned in this article. Hosting a personal server in your home with a dynamic IP address will also require a Dynamic DNS update that is included as part of DNS Exit domain management service.

Putting together these applications on your own requires one to have some basic knowledge of Linux/Unix operating system and some patience. Again if you are complete novice to Linux, check out free resources on the internet for a basic intro to Linux,  like one here .

There are number of installation instructions and getting started recipes out there for these applications. I have created a list of these recipes that will  help you get these applications on your personal server.

  1. Choose a Linux based operating system. You can select from Debian or Ubuntu.
  2. Once you install the basic OS, other required packages for each applications can be easily installed when installing the application.
  3. Install Mail Server – https://www.tecmint.com/install-postfix-mail-server-with-webmail-in-debian/
  4. Install Matrix Synapse – https://www.natrius.eu/dokuwiki/doku.php?id=digital:server:matrixsynapse
  5. Install OwnCloud CE : https://www.digitalocean.com/community/tutorials/how-to-install-and-configure-owncloud-on-debian-9
  6. Install Mastodon : https://docs.joinmastodon.org/administration/installation/
  7. Install OpenHAB : https://www.openhab.org/docs/installation/

Alternative Solutions and Services

Installing and maintaining these applications may feel daunting for everyday users. Turnkey solutions for some of these applications are available from various companies. For example Matrix-based personal communication server hosting can be purchased from Upcloud.com, likewise OwnCloud hosting is available from a number of hosting providers.  Mastodon hosting is available from Mastohost

Most of the above providers are point solutions and may not have the flexibility to add all the applications discussed in this article. For complete flexibility you will have to have complete control of the Virtual Private Server.

Pexus LLC offers an easy configurator application to configure most of these applications easily. The configuration application includes wizards for Email Server, Web Mail, and Postfix Admin configuration, OwnCloud install and configuration and many more operations. New applications are being added on regular basis. Pexus custom Debian OS with the configuration application is available for free for DIY setup on your own PC hardware at home. For more information checkout https://store.pexus.net/solutions/sol-pps

Alternatively Pexus LLC also can provision a personal server as a Virtual Private Server with the custom distribution and configuration application in the cloud. For more information on  Virtual Private Server option visit : https://hosting.pexus.net/


profile-picPradeep Nambiar is passionate about enabling users to use secure personal servers to create a decentralized computing experience  to further individual digital freedom on their own terms. He is the product architect of Patriot PS Personal Server and in his free time as one of the principal of Pexus LLC explores solutions with compelling use cases for increased adoption of personal servers to build a decentralized web. He also volunteers his time to Information Systems and Security Association – Capital of Texas Chapter at Austin,TX

In his day job he is an information security professional working for Altran – A global Engineering and R&D provider. Mr. Nambiar manages secure engineering programs that help create secure software products and cloud applications. NOTE: All opinions, suggestions and thoughts expressed in this article are his and not those of his current employer Altran.


SidPic Sidharth Nair is an incoming 2019 Freshmen to University of Texas at Austin, TX, pursuing Computer Engineering. He is an avid computer gamer,  Minecraft and Runescape are his favorites. He is passionate about computing technology and Math.  His current interests include Java, multi-threaded programming and cryptography.


How your medical data could potentially be exposed!


I recently signed up on UnitedHealthcare website  https://myuhc.com which is supposed to collect very personal sensitive information from a user.

I was surprised to see third party trackers into Social Media companies such as Twitter and Facebook !

That does not give me any confidence!! A medical health insurance company such as United Healthcare has practice of using third party trackers when I am supposed to share my health information and prescription data on that site.

Does the Privacy Officer for UnitedHealthcare has any clue what the team that cooks up such an application do to satisfy their marketing department or to save cost on data analytics software by resorting to use third party software components on their web site. This is a site that is supposed to protect PHI (Protected Health Information) data ?

If you are dealing with sensitive information – here is a piece of advice to web site developers don’t include such third party trackers!

I strongly suggest consumers demand more from such companies before parting with their personal information.

United Healthcare – Are you listening?

Privacy Policy – So broad and complex – incomprehensible by an everyday user!

Here is a Privacy Policy from one of the health insurers that asks users to accept it when signing up for their online service.

I took time to read this. As an information security professional who is passionate about user privacy – I find this so hard to figure out what is protected and what is not. The terms of use is so broad that includes online advertisers, cookies, digital marketing, Google, etc. etc. that it is impossible to understand in any layman’s terms  if your privacy is even secure that too coming from an health insurance company.

Go figure it out for yourself..



How your personal data flows to Facebook under the covers..

Do you really want to trust that free App? Think before you provide your health, financial & personal data to any App. Your data may end up at places you never imagined. Good investigative report from Wall Street Journal


Surveillance Economy – what can you do?

Good needed discussion here : https://irlpodcast.org/season4/episode5


Most of us already know but rarely take a moment to think and act. Ever realized how much of personal data we are giving up every moment willingly just because we want to save few cents a day or succumbing to the inertia to act. Imagine the loss of personal data every day  via  personal content on free personal e-mail services, free messenger services etc.  “Free” digital services is akin to digital socialism that is nothing but digital enslavement that will never end in the good for the consumers. Just think there is no free lunch.  So what can you do about it?  Think what you are giving up when you are signing up for “free” services.  Keep in mind, the privacy terms and fine print before you sign up,  is not designed to protect you, but the free service provider.

There are a number of alternatives that may cost a little but goes a long way in weaning yourself away from the “surveillance” economy created by the “free” services..

You can start small by owning your own personal server and own your own personal mail communication, extend it to free messenger services and other communication services.. it is easy and Pexus LLC makes it easy to set one up in your own home or on a virtual private server in the secure cloud,  under your complete control. Personal servers will be the key to future personal computing that will help consumers migrate away from the “Surveillance Economy” that will be good for the consumers.

Free yourself from free e-mail services such as @gmail  and all things “free” today! Start taking control of your personal data and communication.  Start today and check out our personal server products and services. : https://store.pexus.net

AI/ML at the expense of Privacy and Security ?! –

Innovation is good for all. Building security and having a concern for personal privacy is a must to sustain trust in products and services. There is a mad rush to integrate AI/ML (Artificial Intelligence/Machine Learning)  into everything; if the sheer number of CES 2019 Alexa and Google Home offering is any indication.  A good dig by Apple via this billboard at CES 2019 says it all:  iPhone Privacy Pledge Ad  Hope Apple sticks with its pledge on protecting consumer data and provide privacy enabled products and services even for a slightly higher a price compared to it’s competition.

AI/ML requires huge amount of real world data. AI/ML is sucking up large amounts of personal data every moment we are connected to internet services most of these are free such as @gmail, @facebook, @yahoo and the likes. Consumers don’t know how their data is being collected, analyzed and used in ways that puts them at a disadvantage. Opting out is difficult and most don’t care as there is very little awareness. In addition to news of misuse of personal data by so many companies, security breaches exposes the data to bad actors doing long term damage to consumers.

There is an effort to protect consumer by creating products and services that adhere to privacy by design for consumer goods and services : https://www.iso.org/committee/6935430.html This is a good start. Days of profiting from personal data should come to an end one day. Consumers get these products for free or very nominal prices without realizing how much they give up.  There is a huge opportunity to create products and services to charge more and still profit by educating the consumers that the additional price is worth and go a long way in protecting their personal data.

When signing up for any service or buying any IOT (Internet of Things) connected or home consumer item that promise an always on connection,   consider and ask how your data is collected, sent where? and how it can potentially be misused, stolen and what protection you have? Is it worth the convenience without security and privacy? For example E-mail is the life blood of communication for every user these days. Have you ever wondered how free email service providers such as @gmail @yahoo mail etc. do with your every intimate conversation that you have with your friends, business associates, doctors, real estate agents etc. ?! They will never disclose what they collect and what they sell? There is gold mine of information that power their AI devices and services exposing every personal information that they can lay their hands on. They may even argue  every user that signed up for their services have accepted their terms and conditions that gives them the consent to do what they do. How many read those fine print?. Another example is streaming services such as Netflix and Hulu – have you wondered how much of personal preferences and data can be collected and fed to AI/ML engines on what you watch, the times you watch, where you watch etc. Troves of this data can be sold to so many companies to recommend products and services that can capitalize and expose your privacy at your expense. Beyond this social profiling can also affect your political and thought freedom as China is already using collected data to give you a behavioral and social score. While US govt. is not doing this today, but politicians can misuse and use this to control population that can slowly chip way the freedoms we love so dearly.

Pexus LLC is always working to create products and services that protect and enable consumers to take control of their own data. We are enabling users to host their own e-mail server at home on in the cloud using a virtual private server completely under their control. We make it easy by enabling a more de-centralized computing the way it was meant to be.

Check out personal server solutions from Pexus LLC at https://www.pexus.com/patriotps and https://store.pexus.net  Contact us at sales@pexus.com to learn more or explore products and services at https://store.pexus.net


dnsbl.njabl.org sunset Jan 01 2019

If you run a mail server (which I think everyone one should for a real decentralized communication network e-mail was originally designed for) and using postfix  and use dnsbl.njabl.org to lookup blacklisted hosts when processing mail, then you need to remove this host as dnsbl.njabl.org has been sunset and will no longer resolve. This will affect your mail server as it will reject all mail received. Update your postfix configuration file /etc/postfix/main.cf and remove this RBL client entry e.g:

smtpd_client_restrictions = reject_rbl_client sbl.spamhaus.org, reject_rbl_client blackholes.easynet.nl, reject_rbl_client dnsbl.njabl.org

Then restart your postfix server

/etc/init.d/postfix restart

Refer: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Not_Just_Another_Bogus_List


Omnipresent Personal Data Collection in the name of convenience

The flow of personal data through voice interaction is exploding via devices such as Alexa, Google Home Assistant and Apple Home Pod. While these devices provides convenience and claim privacy – do they really protect your personal data? Can we trust them with every personal interaction that we do in our homes? They are made to look cool and the wave of the future. However as long as they are connected to their servers one can never be sure how your intimate personal home interaction data will be used. 

The ‘big brother is always watching’ is becoming a reality if you own such a device that is connected and controlled by their manufacturers. 

May be there is a better way.

Unless we decouple the device manufacturers from the service provider and include personal privacy protection features that will completely anonymize the data that that is sent outside your home, we can never be sure. 

Consumers must claim for this decoupling and complete anonymization.  While Apple is making some efforts in this space we still have a long way to go. Apple who is not be in the business of selling and using personal data for their profit  like Google, Facebook and Amazon; will be in a better and credible position to sell this concept.

Until the consumers are educated on the privacy implications of these devices big tech companies like Google, Amazon, Facebook who profit from personal data will continue to endanger user privacy.

So think before getting one of these devices that is always listening to you.